Powerboat-World.com
 
 
News Home Photo Gallery Video Gallery Newsletters Features
Sail-World.com : Black Sea rich in ancient genetic data
Black Sea rich in ancient genetic data


'WHOI researcher Alan Gagnon, Marco Coolen (center, in blue safety helmet), and the crew from the Bulgarian research vessel Akademik sample the sediment core that was used for this study.'    Dimitri Dimitrov, IO-BAS

When Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) marine paleoecologist Marco Coolen was mining through vast amounts of genetic information from the Black Sea sediment record, he was astounded by the variety of past plankton species that left behind their genetic makeup (i.e., the plankton paleome).

The semi-isolated Black Sea is highly sensitive to climate driven environmental changes, and the underlying sediments represent high-resolution archives of past continental climate and concurrent hydrologic changes in the basin. The brackish Black Sea is currently receiving salty Mediterranean waters via the narrow Strait of Bosphorus as well as freshwater from rivers and via precipitation.

'However, during glacial sea level lowstands, the marine connection was hindered, and the Black Sea functioned as a giant lake,' says WHOI geologist Liviu Giosan.

He added that 'the dynamics of the environmental changes from the Late Glacial into the Holocene (last 10,000 years) remain a matter of debate, and information on how these changes affected the plankton ecology of the Black Sea is sparse.'

Using a combination of advanced ancient DNA techniques and tools to reconstruct the past climate, Coolen, Giosan, and their colleagues have determined how communities of plankton have responded to changes in climate and the influence of humans over the last 11,400 years. Their results will be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA (PNAS), and will be available online on May 6.

Researchers traditionally reconstruct the makeup of plankton by using a microscope to count the fossil skeletons found in sediment cores. But, this method is limited because most plankton leave no fossils, so instead Coolen looked for sedimentary genomic remains of the past inhabitants of the Black Sea water column.

'DNA offers the best opportunity to learn the past ecology of the Black Sea,' says Coolen. 'For example, calcareous and organic-walled dinocysts are frequently used to reconstruct past environmental conditions, but 90 percent of the dinoflagellate species do not produce such diagnostic resting stages, yet their DNA remains in the fossil record.'

However, ancient DNA signatures in marine sediments have thus far been used for targeted reconstruction of specific plankton groups and those studies were based on very small clone libraries. Instead, the researchers used a high throughput next generation DNA sequencing approach called pyro sequencing to look for the overall plankton changes in the Back Sea from the DE glaciation to recent times.

The breach of the Bosporus sill connected the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara and the world ocean. As glaciers melted and global sea levels began to rise, the Black Sea also rose, bringing it to its present day level. -  Jack Cook - WHOI  

In addition, the researchers reconstructed past changes in salinity and temperature as the possible causes for plankton community shifts in the Black Sea.

To reconstruct the salinity, the WHOI team analyzed sediments containing highly resistant organic compounds called alkenones, which are uniquely produced by Emiliania huxleyi—the same photosynthetic organism oceanographers study to determine past sea surface temperatures. By examining the ratio of two hydrogen isotopes in the alkenones, they were able to map the salinity trend in the Black Sea over the last 6,500 years.

'One of the isotopes, deuterium, is not very common in nature,' explains Coolen, 'And it doesn't evaporate as easily as other isotopes. Higher ratios of deuterium are indicative of higher salinity.'

The WHOI team was funded through the National Science Foundation and they collaborated with Chris Quince and his postdoc Keith Harris from the Computational Microbial Genomics Group at the University of Glasgow, and with micropaloentologist Mariana Filipova-Marinova from the Natural History Museum in Varna, Bulgaria.

Their study revealed that 150 of 2,710 identified plankton showed a statistically significantly response to four environmental stages since the deglacial. Freshwater green algae were the best indicator species for lake conditions more than 9,000 years ago although the co-presence of previously unidentified marine plankton species indicated that the Black Sea might have been influenced to some extent by the Mediterranean Sea over at least the past 9,600 years.

Dinoflagellates, cercozoa, eustigmatophytes, and haptophyte algae responded most dramatically to the gradual increase in salinity after the latest marine reconnection and during the warm and moist mid-Holocene climatic optimum. Salinity increased rapidly with the onset of the dry Subboreal climate stage after ca. 5200 years ago leading to an increase in marine fungi and the first occurrence of marine copepods. A gradual succession of phytoplankton such as dinoflagellates, diatoms, and golden algae occurred during refreshening of the Black Sea with the onset of the cool and wet Subatlantic climate around 2500 years ago. The most drastic changes in plankton occurred over the last century associated with recent human disturbances in the region.

The new findings show how sensitive marine ecosystems are to climate and human impact. The high throughput sequencing of ancient DNA signatures allows us to reconstruct a large part of ancient oceanic life including organisms that are not preserved as fossils.

Coolen added that ancient plankton DNA was even preserved in the oldest analyzed Black Sea lake sediments when the entire water column was most likely well mixed and oxygenated. This means that ancient plankton DNA might be widely preserved in sediments and can likely be used to reconstruct past life in the majority of oceanic and lake environments.

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) is a private, non-profit organization on Cape Cod, Mass., dedicated to marine research, engineering, and higher education. Established in 1930 on a recommendation from the National Academy of Sciences, its primary mission is to understand the oceans and their interaction with the Earth as a whole, and to communicate a basic understanding of the oceans' role in the changing global environment.


by WHOI

  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.powerboat-world.com/index.cfm?nid=109297

6:29 PM Thu 9 May 2013GMT


Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.







Power Boat News - USA

In a move that is expected to benefit recreational boaters, on Oct. 22 the US Coast Guard will drop the current life jacket type code scheme -- Type I, II, III, IV and V -- that has been used for years to label and differentiate the types of life jackets and their specific use. ... [more]  

The good fortune of Tammy Wolf continued through the end of the season and is determined to make it work for 2015. She finished top 10 in the last four US PROP Formula Two Series races, including her current streak of four consecutive top-five finishes. And all the while, Wolf has run better at just about every race course from her previous year. ... [more]  

Mr Priddy hopes to shave up to seven days off the current powerboat record of 60 days 23 hours 49 minutes, held by New Zealander Pete Bethune. He will make the formal announcement at the Fathom Ship Efficiency Conference in London on Wednesday October 1st. The boat has been designed by Professor Bob Cripps, former Technical Director of VT Halmatic. ... [more]  

Having grown into the world’s largest marine motorsport brand over the last 12 years, Powerboat P1 has announced plans to take its SuperStock powerboat and AquaX jet ski race series to Singapore next year as a first step to racing throughout the region. ... [more]  

As their annual migration south approaches, sail and powerboat cruisers are stocking their boat’s lockers, checking systems and taking inventory of spare parts. But that’s not the only preparation these cruising 'snowbirds' will need to do, says Boat Owners Association of The United States (BoatUS). ... [more]  

You scratched my seagrass! by Steven Katona, Newport, RI
Sailors for the Sea publishes monthly articles that translate the language of marine science into fascinating articles about ocean health. ... [more]  

Yesterday at the PSP Southampton Boat Show the RYA launched a brand new title, the ‘RYA Advanced Powerboat Handbook’ adding to its existing stable of 150 printed publications and eBooks. The RYA’s Publication’s Team were joined on the RYA stand by author, Paul Glatzel to quiz him on how he goes about writing a book like this and what readers can expect when they purchase a copy. ... [more]  

Teddy Pons and Chris MacClugage completed the perfect weekend to win Mediterranean Grand Prix titles in their respective categories after taking their second heat wins, with the Ladies title going to Spain’s Sandra Fernandez and the Freestyle to Rok Florjancic. ... [more]  

It was a bitter blow for Al Mansoori and Al Tayer on their debut Grand Prix outing in their new boat, and after going second quickest in qualifying earlier in the day were running in second spot behind Victory at the first turn when they hooked and went over. ... [more]  

It was a Sunday afternoon just over a week ago when 13-year-old Sarah Grace Tellifero was enjoying the last days of summer with three friends, swimming near a boathouse on a local lake. Sadly, when Sarah went to grab a boarding ladder on a pontoon boat to climb out of the water, she was electrocuted. ... [more]  

The Spanish Island of Ibiza is all set to host the heavyweights of world powerboat racing when they take to the waters off Playa D’en Bossa for the Mediterranean Grand Prix on 5-7 September. ... [more]  

French riders Jeremy Perez, Jeremy Poret and Jennifer Menard will line-up in Ibiza [5-7 September] looking to defend and build on their Championship leads in their respective categories Runabout GP1 and Ski GP1, when an expected 65-competitors from 15 countries take to the waters off Playa d’en Bossa for the Mediterranean Grand Prix, round three of the UIM-ABP Aquabike Class Pro World Championship ... [more]  

A study of satellite data from the last 19 years reveals that fresh water from melting glaciers has caused the sea-level around the coast of Antarctica to rise by 2cm more than the global average of 6cm. A team of researchers, including the British Antarctic Survey, have detected the rapid rise in sea-level by studying satellite scans of a region that spans more than a million square kilometres. ... [more]  

Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show - 13 things to See and do by Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show
Each year, Annual Fort Lauderdale International Boat show organizers strive to deliver new, exciting features to enrich the overall show experience and engage audiences. Here are the top 13 things to see and do at this year's show. ... [more]  

The rolling September surf at Tierra Del Mar in Pacific City Oregon will once again be the location for this year’s top USA and International Freeride Watercraft surf event. Pacific City will be the final and deciding Freeride World Tour stop where the cuffs come off, punches will be pulled and waves will be ripped. ... [more]  

The championship battle between P1 AquaX world ranked number one racer Eric Francis and the 300 Championship leader, Stuart Rasmussen, reached another level this weekend as fifty Jet skiers headed out to Florida’s Space Coast for the penultimate round of the P1 USA AquaX race series. ... [more]  

Race teams converged on the Gulf Coast for a spectacular double-header race weekend; with racing in Orange Beach, AL this past Friday and racing in Pensacola Bay on Sunday. With a dual heat race on Friday, fans got to see lead changes, fast action and their favorite teams take the checkered flag. Orange Beach waters were some of the flattest seas seen in years. ... [more]  

For boaters, sailors or anglers, knowing the forecast and understanding the weather can mean the difference between smooth, sunny sailing or slogging through uncomfortably rough seas. Weather for Boaters, a new online course from the United States Power Squadrons (USPS) and the BoatUS Foundation aims to teach boaters the basics of weather and forecasting. ... [more]  

Polar research: Six priorities for Antarctic science by Mahlon C. Kennicutt II and colleagues
Antarctica includes about one-tenth of the planet's land surface, nearly 90% of Earth's ice and about 70% of its fresh water. Its encircling ocean supports Patagonian toothfish and krill fisheries, and is crucial for regulating climate and the uptake of carbon dioxide by sea water. ... [more]  

Stanford researchers look for freshwater mussels as part of a study of bivalves' ability to clean chemicals from waterways. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products, herbicides and flame retardants are increasingly showing up in waterways. New Stanford research finds that a natural, low-cost solution – clams and mussels – may already exist for these contaminants of emerging concern, or CECs. ... [more]  

Last night, the Coast Guard Foundation hosted the Alaska Awards Dinner. At the event, Geraldo Rivera presented the Coast Guard Foundation with a $40,000 gift to support their work. ... [more]  

Seizing the lead in the national points for the Superboat Unlimited class, the #77 Lucas Oil SilverHook now has a comfortable 913 point lead over the second place, Miss GEICO who was MIA. ... [more]  

A sea of choices. Many of us flock to the coasts during the summer to enjoy swimming, boating, fishing, a break from the heat and delicious seafood. In today’s globalized world, even those of us who live far from the coast have access to a plethora of seafood choices in our local restaurants and grocery stores. ... [more]  

John Wilson has his sights set on a second P1 SuperStock title after two victories this weekend in the Pertemps boat in the Torquay Grand Prix of the Sea. With navigator Daisy Coleman alongside him in the cockpit, Wilson used all his experience in the testing conditions of Torbay to establish a seven point championship lead going into the final round of the season next month. ... [more]  

A win each for Pertemps and GD Environmental in testing conditions at the Torquay Grand Prix yesterday saw IFX Racing lose their championship lead after a hugely disappointing day for the Buckinghamshire-based team. ... [more]  

The Coast Guard Foundation, a non-profit organization committed to the education and welfare of all Coast Guard members and their families, announced today that it will honor the men and women who serve in Alaska at its biennial Alaska Awards Dinner at The Hotel Captain Cook in Anchorage on Wednesday August 13th. ... [more]  

Teams competed on Lake Michigan this past weekend during the sixth annual Great Lakes Super Boat Grand Prix with a crowd that appeared to exceed last year’s reported attendance of 110,000 people. Team Broadco (Superboat Class) excited the crowd by leading green flag to checkered flag in both heats on a spectacular summer August day. ... [more]  

Capt George Walker, the new owner of TowBoatUS Rouses Point, NY, wants Lake Champlain boaters to know he is there to help them anyway he can. A lifelong boater and certified diver who holds a US Coast Guard 100-ton Master license, Walker has a fleet of red-hulled boats ready to assist anyone who runs aground, has a mechanical breakdown, needs a battery jump or runs out of fuel anywhere on the lake ... [more]  

If all else fails read the instructions!! by Stuart Carruthers, RYA Cruising Manager
'If all else fails read the instructions'. I am sure that many of us have heard or even used that phrase, particularly at times when we have bought something new and can’t wait to get it home, unpack it, plug it in, switch it on and expect it to work like clockwork.mWhen nothing happens we grab the instructions and try to work out what went wrong. ... [more]  

If all else fails read the instructions!! by Stuart Carruthers, RYA Cruising Manager
'If all else fails read the instructions'. I am sure that many of us have heard or even used that phrase, particularly at times when we have bought something new and can’t wait to get it home, unpack it, plug it in, switch it on and expect it to work like clockwork.mWhen nothing happens we grab the instructions and try to work out what went wrong. ... [more]  

The Coast Guard Foundation, a non-profit organization committed to the education and welfare of all Coast Guard members and their families was honored by Coast Guard Training Center Cape May yesterday, August 3, during its third Sunset Parade of 2014. ... [more]  

2014 Offshore Superboat Championships - Coffs Harbour is set to host round four of the 2014 Offshore Superboat Championships (OSC) for a second consecutive year. ... [more]  

The powerboat racing and performance boating communities have always stuck together and always supported good causes and efforts. It is no surprise that when The Dream Ride, a motorcycle and automotive extravaganza conceived by Mike Bozzuto of Bozzuto's Inc., a large New England-based grocery wholesaler to benefit the Special Olympics, two of his buddies were onboard immediately. ... [more]  

Series Point’s Championship - Formula Two team secures a second place
Predictwind helps you pick the best time to depart
Watch this whale lift a Kayak clear out of the water
Drowning or electric shock? What you need to know to help save a life
National Sailing Hall of Fame to present Lifetime Achievement Award
Long Island waters could become more taxing this summer
P1 Superstock debut in Tampa tumultuous for #33 CL-Alpha
Mountain Island Lake gets 24-Hour TowBoatUS coverage
Super Boat International to stay in Key West for the next 5 years
Solar 1 Monte Carlo Cup 2014 - Day 1 + Video
Suncoast Superboat Grand Prix - Great show for 30th Annual Event
Tags reveal Chilean devil rays are among ocean's deepest divers
Newport International Boat Show unveils exciting 'At The Helm' Program
Suncoast Grand Prix - 77 Lucas Oil team prepares + Video
Management measures implemented to reduce large whale entanglements
Coast Guard Foundation presents gift to Station Fort Pierce
Newport International Boat Show unveils 'At The Helm' program
The Dinghy Nav Light Solution- a brilliantly dumb idea
Nation’s birthday requires special caution
Tips for selecting the best boatyard
Predictwind unlocks more features on free accounts   
Composite Rigging launches new campaign for ECsix   
Tammy Wolf and Mercury's Formula 2 Powerboat on to Divisional Champion   
XCAT World Series - Qatar Team claim second successive victory   
Stresa Grand Prix - Fazza claims Emaar Pole Position   
Stresa Grand Prix - Barlesi and Barone score fastest time of the day   
UIM Dubai World Series - XCAT pilots undergo safety dunking in Stresa   
Enforcement of Gill Net Ban part of Bay Mega Cleanup in Puerto Rico   
Stresa Grand Prix - Victory Team reveal driver change   
From FUBAR to CUBAR at San Diego Yacht Club   
Iceberg activity related to climate massively alters seabed life   
Bowen Offshore Superboat Race - Superboats set to blast into Bowen   
BoatUS EPIRB saves Cata-Tonic crew   
President signs 'Highway bill for boaters'   
Husband and wife duo top PowerBoat P1 Superstock field in Jacksonville   
Virik Nilsen back in XCAT action with Lady Spain   
First Platinum Level Clean Regattas Certification awarded in 2014   
Grand Prix of Italy - Victories claimed in Milan   
Pantaenius provides safety tracking for major events *Feature   
Jacksonville Grand Prix of the Sea countdown underway   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png   http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL VIR PBW US
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT