Powerboat-World.com
 
 
News Home Video Gallery Newsletters Features FishingBoating Photo Gallery Sail-World Australia Australian Cruising
MarineBusiness-World

 

Sail-World.com : First harmful Algal Bloom genome sequenced

First harmful Algal Bloom genome sequenced

'The brown tides caused by Aureococcus anophagefferens—like the one above in Long Island, NY—do not produce toxins that poison humans, but the long-lasting blooms are toxic to bivalves and have decimated sea grass beds and shellfisheries leading to billions of dollars in economic losses. - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution'    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©

Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution - The microscopic phytoplankton Aureococcus anophagefferens, which causes devastating brown tides, may be tiny but it’s a fierce competitor.

In the first genome sequencing of a harmful algal bloom species, researchers found that Aureococcus’ unique gene complement allows it to outcompete other marine phytoplankton and thrive in human-modified ecosystems, which could help explain the global increases in harmful algal blooms (HABs).

The research team, led by Christopher Gobler of Stony Brook University’s School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences in collaboration with scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), will publish its findings online in the February 21 edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The brown tides caused by Aureococcus do not produce toxins that poison humans, but the long-lasting blooms are toxic to bivalves and have decimated sea grass beds and shellfisheries leading to billions of dollars in economic losses. The blooms, which had not been documented before 1985, are now chronic, annual events in estuaries along the heavily populated coastlines of the eastern United States and South Africa. While HABs occur naturally, impacts from human activities, such as increased pollutants and excess nutrients from fertilizer runoff, have been linked to the rise in HAB outbreaks. Like many other HABs, Aureococcus blooms in shallow estuaries where light levels and inorganic nutrients are low, and organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations are high.

The 56-million base pair Aureococcus genome was sequenced in 2007 by the Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute from a culture isolated from the shores of Long Island, NY—one of the areas most affected by the HAB. Members of the Aureococcus Genome Consortium then compared the genome with other phytoplankton inhabiting the estuaries where Aureococcus blooms. They found Aureococcus shows genome-encoded advantages over its competitors and is genetically predisposed to exploit certain characteristics of human-modified coastal ecosystems.

'There are things it can do that the other algae can’t, and those advantages are encoded at the genome level,' said Sonya Dyhrman, a biologist at WHOI and co-author of the paper. 'For example, it’s well-adapted to low light conditions and can survive for long periods in no light. Aureococcus had 62 light-harvesting genes whereas its competitors had, on average, a couple of dozen.'

The photosynthetic microalga also shows advantages when it comes to metabolizing organic matter—particularly organic nitrogen and organic carbon—and handling what would normally be toxic amounts of metals, like copper. Aureococcus also has a larger number of selenoproteins, which use the trace element selenium to perform essential cell functions.

'When we looked at the coastal ecosystems where we find Aureococcus blooms, we found they were enriched in organic matter, were very turbid and enriched in trace metals,' Gobler said. 'And when we looked at the genome of Aureococcus, it ended up being enriched in genes to take advantage of these conditions. The surprise was the concordance between the genome and the ecosystem where it’s blooming.'

New advances in the field of genomics have allowed researchers to better address difficult questions in environmental biology. Gobler described this new 'ecogenomic' approach—applying molecular techniques to ecological and environmental science—as a particularly powerful tool for understanding the dominance of different harmful algal blooms within different ecosystems around the world.

'It’s really exciting to be able to apply these new tools and a molecular approach to old questions about how organisms are functioning and interacting with their environment,' Dyhrman said. 'I’ve been interested in these kinds of questions since graduate school, but we simply did not have the tools then to approach it in this way. We now have a huge new tool kit and are able to look at these questions in a much more specific way than ever before.'

'I think this paper says it all,' added Don Anderson, Director of the U.S. National Office for Harmful Algal Blooms and a senior scientist at WHOI. 'Here’s a species that blooms and for years people have been trying to understand why it blooms, when it blooms, how it is able to do that when there are so many other competing species in the water with it. With this new genomic data you have a new approach. You’re getting answers based on the genes, though you still need other approaches that are more oceanographic and chemical to go along with the inferences drawn from the presence and absence of genes. It’s a great advance. It’s a great resource for our community—the more we learn about Aureococcus, the easier it’s going to be learn about the other HAB species.'

The research team will now start looking at Aureococcus’ RNA and trying to determine when and how different genes are expressed throughout the lifetime of the bloom.

'By looking at when the genes are transcribed through the bloom, we’re hoping to provide the next piece in the puzzle—understanding how the genes are responding to the environment and what is fueling and causing the demise of blooms,' Dyhrman said.

The long-term goal is to be able to keep blooms from occurring or at least be able to better predict and manage when blooms occur.

'We now know this organism is genetically predisposed to exploit certain characteristics of coastal ecosystems. We also know the characteristics are there because of activities of man,' Gobler said. 'If we continue to increase, for example, organic matter in coastal waters, then it’s going to continue to favor brown tides since it’s genetically predisposed to thrive in these conditions.'

Researchers from the University of Tennessee, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Rutgers University, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Macquarie University, University of Delaware, Stanford University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology also contributed to this work. Funding for the research was provided by New York Sea Grant, U.S. Department of Energy, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Institutes of Health, and National Science Foundation.

Louie Wurch extracts RNA from Aureococcus anophagefferens in the Dyhrman Phytoplankton and Marine Biogeochemistry Laboratory at WHOI. Researchers found the harmful algal bloom species has a unique gene complement that allows it to outcompete other marine phytoplankton and thrive in human-modified ecosystems. - Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution -  Woods Hole Oceanographic?nid=80752 Institution (WHOI) ©  

http://www.whoi.edu/




by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.powerboat-world.com/index.cfm?nid=80752

6:13 AM Sat 26 Feb 2011 GMT






Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.

Click for further information on
Environment and the ocean

Related News Stories:

27 Nov 2013  World Oceans Day appeals for funds
16 Nov 2013  Gigantic iceberg sails north from the Antarctic
09 Nov 2013  Sailing and swimming with manatees - Oceans Watch Essay
01 Nov 2013  OceansWatch: cruising sailors give something back in the South Pacific
23 Oct 2013  'The Ocean is Broken' - without fish, there can be no birds
13 Oct 2013  PlanetSolar reaches Paris after successful ocean study
02 Oct 2013  Monaco Yacht Show goes Green
07 Sep 2013  Great Pacific Garbage Patch - the real story
03 Sep 2013  World's largest solar yacht drops anchor after marine science quest
25 Aug 2013  Boat owners: cover vessels to deter seagulls
MORE STORIES ...

Power Boat News

There is still time to purchase a copy of the new RYA Advanced Powerboat Handbook by Paul Glatzel and be in with a chance of winning an RYA Advanced Powerboat course courtesy of the Paul’s RYA Training Centre, Powerboat Training UK. ... [more]  

PredictWind have made significant improvements to the swell forecasting models and added new locations. Integrating the new 50km global wind forecast with ocean current data has created the most advanced swell modelling available online. By combining PredictWind forecast data with ocean current data, the effect of the wind on swells can be accounted for ... [more]  

Imagine finishing the Coastal Classic and relaxing in your own waterfront home at Opua with your boat tugging gently on a deep-water mooring off the lawn. Built to an architect design in 2000, this north-facing waterfront Opua property is a short walk to the marina and boatyard. It is going to auction on November 22. View this Labour Weekend after the Coastal Classic. ... [more]  

The event has historically been conducted at the Brisbane Showgrounds, however as a result of the significant construction and redevelopment of that venue, it has presented many operational difficulties in continuing todeliver a high quality event expected by exhibitors andvisitors to an industry boating showcase. ... [more]  

MMC has presented PaddleNSW with 50 new generation lifejackets so its coaches and instructors can help role model behaviour to further encourage everyone on the water to wear lifejackets. 'The lifejackets will be used to kit out PaddleNSW’s network of training staff and volunteers in key locations across NSW,' said MMC General Manager Howard Glenn. ... [more]  

The Australian marine industry is singing the praises of the fourth annual Gold Coast International Marine Expo, reporting strong sales and even greater prospects in the lead-up to summer. 'Based on exhibitor feedback, the total sales at the Expo alone would certainly be in the order of tens of millions of dollars,' she said. ... [more]  

Volunteer Marine Rescue Southport, at the top of the Gold Coast, now has more of both after fitting twin 300 hp Mercury Verado outboards onto it largest vessel, a 9.5 metre Noosa Cat 3100. ... [more]  

2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo - Marine Syndication, a division of Marine Auctions, was in full swing at the Gold Coast International Marine Expo that took place at the Gold Coast Marine Precinct in Coomera. ... [more]  

UIM Class 1 Grand Prix of Italy 2014 - Sunday, Terracina (Italy): Luca Fendi and Giovanni Carpitella produced a breath taking performance to take their first win together in C1 at the team’s home Grand Prix, with Aquasport’s Daniel Cramphorn and Nico Huybens producing a totally dominant performance to win in V1. ... [more]  

Watchstanders at Coast Guard Sector Hampton Roads received a report from a concerned friend at 10:30 p.m., Friday stating the two men had departed on a planned 20-minute trip, but had been gone for approximately two hours. The reporting source also stated that the men did not have radios or cell phones aboard. ... [more]  

More than 13,000 visitors flocked to Scotland’s Boat Show 2014 (SBS14) at Kip Marina, Inverclyde last weekend as the boating world showed off everything from a £500 dinghy to an £800,000 Sunseeker luxury powerboat. SBS14 is the largest boat show in Scotland and the third largest in the UK and, with over £15m worth of boats on display, there was something for every budget. ... [more]  

Victory and Bernico-New Star took race 1 honours in a dramatic and incident-filled first race at the Grand Prix of Italy, which was stopped after a first corner spin-out by Tommy One after the start lap, forcing officials to bring out the red flag. ... [more]  

2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo - The awe-inspiring aerial antics of the Extreme High Diving show at this weekend’s 2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo have a whole new flavour, with McDonald’s signing up as an event partner. ... [more]  

Alongside the line-up yachts and boats by international and local brands, visitors to this year’s Yacht CN will have a chance to enjoy the exciting Moto Surf China Race, passionate samba dances, bikini model shows, international music band performances, and popular international DJ music on-site. ... [more]  

Boyan Slat is a 20-year-old on a mission - to rid the planet's oceans of floating plastic. He has dedicated his teenage years to finding a way of collecting it. But can the system really work - and is there any point when so much new plastic waste is still flowing into the sea every day? ... [more]  

Discover Boating Week starts tomorrow by Boating Industry Association
Discover Boating Week is a celebration of the recreational boating lifestyle and the joys and fun that come with spending quality time on the water. Whether you're a fisherman, paddler or sailor, there is something for everyone. Over 40 events will be taking place across the state from October 18 - 25 and the best part is, they all absolutely free! ... [more]  

Great start to another massive Gold Coast International Marine Expo by Emma Milne/Gold Coast International Marine Expo
The Gold Coast International Marine Expo – open all weekend – is a marquee event for the marine industry and has delivered on its promise of 'all things aquatic – from super yachts and jet skis to kayaks and fishing equipment … and everything in between'. ... [more]  

The 2014 Fort Lauderdale Boat Show is fast approaching and I want to know if you’re planning to attend. If you are, I'd like to let you know about some of our must-see clients. ... [more]  

Boaters are reminded to keep clear of a section of Sydney Harbour on Sunday 26 October for the safe staging of The Australian Boat Race. ... [more]  

The first ever Safer Boating Week (17-24 October) puts the spotlight firmly on ensuring boaties walk the safety talk when they’re out on the water this summer, Maritime New Zealand (MNZ) says. New research, commissioned by MNZ, shows the majority of New Zealanders have good safety attitudes but these don’t always translate into safe behaviour on the water. ... [more]  

2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo - With less than 24 hours until the start of the three-day 2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo, the event site is a hive of activity as exhibitors prepare and polish their displays to help you make this summer one to remember. ... [more]  

Reggie Fountain--a legend, a leader and a brand that still defines one of the most historic chapters of Powerboating history. The compelling story of offshore racer and boat builder Reggie Fountain--the man who revolutionized offshore racing with innovations in boat building that still influence the sport today--is told by American Performance Media in its new film documentary, King of Offshore. ... [more]  

Victory and Chaudron top the standings in the UIM C1 and V1 World and European Championships and head-up a 13-strong line-up for the European title decider at this weekend’s Italian Grand Prix in Terracina. ... [more]  

Boats recovery after Sydney storm by Roads and Maritime Services
Roads and Maritime Services Maritime Director Angus Mitchell said Roads and Maritime Services boating safety officers (BSO) had been busy since sunrise in Port Hacking helping with the recovery of more than 10 boats which broke their moorings overnight during stormy conditions. ... [more]  

MMC have donated 300 new generation lifejackets to Rowing NSW so their coaches and instructors can act as ambassadors by wearing them and role modelling behaviour to further encourage everyone on the water to wear lifejackets. ... [more]  

Most boaters start the new boating season safely by Roads and Maritime Services
The results are in from the first boating campaign of the new season with a reminder for boaters to keep an eye on their speed and ensure they are aware of NSW lifejacket laws. ... [more]  

The Barcelona International Boat Show will once again be the platform chosen by the main national and international companies in the sector to exhibit their products this year. Around 250 exhibitors will present 70 new boat models, from the more than 650 boats on show, 50 innovations in electronic accessories and the latest motors, as well as a wide range of services, products and trends. ... [more]  

Defending World Champions, the Qatar Team, based in Doha, head next week to Lakeland, Florida in the USA hoping to put a 'slam dunk' on the rest of the field of drivers as they prepare for the third round of the 2014 UIM F1 H2O World Championship on the 13-15 of November at their home circuit on Doha Bay in Doha, Qatar. ... [more]  

To celebrate the start of the recreational boating season, Discover Boating Week will run from October 18 to 26. The public are invited to learn more about recreational boating through dozens of activities that have been organised by industry members and associated boating groups. ... [more]  

Lady Musgrave Island, North Queensland, Australia: The turquoise waters of the large lagoon and 1192 hectares (2950 acres) of reef surrounding Lady Musgrave Island on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef was certainly a sight to behold for 40 Riviera owners and their friends as they dropped anchor in the Capricorn Cays National Park for the annual R Marine Crawley Lady Musgrave Experience. ... [more]  

Boaters are reminded to keep clear of a section of Lake Mulwala this weekend for the safe staging of the Yarrawonga Mulwala Multisport Festival. ... [more]  

The 605 Sportsfish gives you such a good fishing experience you might not notice how safe it is! A hinged gate provides sea-height access to the transom. Starboard and port walk rounds provide fast accessibility to all areas of the boat. And a bow windlass option makes it easier than ever to drop anchor. ... [more]  

Multihull Solutions is expecting strong interest in its power and sail range at this weekend’s Gold Coast Marine Expo from 17-19 October. The company will be displaying the new Summerland 40 Long Range (LR) by Fountaine Pajot Motor Yachts as well as the Fountaine Pajot Lipari 41 Evolution at the show, to satisfy both power and sail multihull enthusiasts. ... [more]  

Update: Stunning finds from ancient Greek Shipwreck
Teams preparing for Key West 2015 season
Search for victims in challenging marine rescue test
Gold Coast International Marine Expo - Boats to behold … and much more
Sail Canada - Keel and Power Programs at AGM
Superior set for METS and enters Waterscape in DAME Awards *Feature
Roads and Maritime Services seeks proposals for vessel suppliers
Ferretti Yachts 550 comes to light
Vicsail - Boat Show Open Day - d'Albora Marina Rushcutters Bay
Benetti launches Veloce 140 in the Fast Displacement series
The future is now at 2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo
Grand Prix of China - France celebrates treble in Liuzhou
2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo - Futuristic and fun toys
Super Boat National Championships - Great conditions for sixth edition
Genoa International Boat Show 2014 – everything is relative
GC International Marine Expo: Sirroco RIB + engine up for grabs
BIA responds to Sydney Marine Park proposal
TV awareness campaign calls on boaties to be safe on the water
2014 NSW Discover Boating Week - Set to kick off this year’s summer
Lifejackets do save lives - Wear yours on board this long weekend
Recognition for boating community with Maritime Medal Awards   
Sydney Harbour Marine Park would attract Industry compensation claims   
Get set for the Sportjet   
2014 Auckland on the Water Boatshow hailed a huge success   
2014 Gold Coast Int'l Marine Expo: TAFE Marine Training Centre on show   
Dredging of Swansea Channel gets underway   
Barcelona International Boat Show - Ideal platform to launch products   
Have trailer, will travel *Feature   
Auckland On The Water Boat Show: Images from the final day   
British ocean adventuring legend launches round the world record bid   
Auckland On the Water Boat Show: World record mark set on Lancer SUP   
Marine Rescue Forster Tuncurry recognised with Water Safety Week Award   
Marine Rescue NSW wins 2014 NSW Water Safety Awards   
Auckland On Water Boat Show: SUP record attempt Saturday afternoon   
Marine Rescue Point Danger assists disabled yacht to safety   
Powerboat P1 plans to take SuperStock and AquaX racing to Singapore   
Seen on the water at the Auckland On The Water Boat Show   
New Zealand's largest on water boat show gets underway with big crowds   
RBT only applies when vessel is underway   
BIA and MIMRA at RMS Boating Safety Day!   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png   http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL WAS PBW
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT