Powerboat-World.com
 
 
News Home Video Gallery Newsletters FishingBoating Features Photo Gallery Sail-World Australia Australian Cruising
Sail-World Australia Australian Cruising MarineBusiness-World

 

Sail-World.com : Natural Iron locks atmospheric carbon dioxide into the World's Oceans

Natural Iron locks atmospheric carbon dioxide into the World's Oceans

'Biological productivity in large areas of the Southern Ocean is limited by the supply of iron, an important micronutrient for phytoplankton. The main sources of iron to the bloom area around the Crozet Islands in the Southern Ocean are the atmosphere, deep-sea upwelling (vertical), and the islands, themselves (horizontal). The image also shows the main circulation paths (green lines), topography and a composite SeaWIFS satelllite chlorophyll a image for the austral summer 2004-2005. (Planquette et al., 2007)'    Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) ©

An experiment to study the effects of naturally deposited iron in the Southern Ocean has filled in a key piece of the puzzle surrounding iron’s role in locking atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ocean.

The research, conducted by an international team led by Raymond Pollard of the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, and included Matthew Charette, a marine chemist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), found that natural iron fertilization enhanced the export of carbon to the deep ocean. The research was published January 29, 2009, in the journal Nature.

Scientists have generally accepted the fact that biological productivity in large areas of the Southern Ocean is limited by the supply of iron, an important micronutrient for phytoplankton. However, downstream of ocean islands in this study area, massive phytoplankton blooms have been observed, leading to the idea that the islands themselves are somehow fertilizing the ocean with iron.

The team showed that this natural iron fertilization enhanced phytoplankton growth and productivity and the amount of carbon exported from the surface layer (100 meters) by two to three times. Moreover, they found that the amount of carbon stored at 3,000 meters and in the sediment was similarly two to three times higher beneath the natural fertilized region than for the nearby iron-poor region.

'This work demonstrated for the first time that Southern Ocean phytoplankton blooms fueled by natural sources of iron have the potential to sequester carbon in the deep ocean,' said Charette.

The team conducted their experiment in 2004-2005 on the seas around the Crozet Islands and Plateau at the northern boundary of the Southern Ocean, about 1,400 miles (2,200 kilometers) southeast of South Africa. These seas provided a natural laboratory, because each spring the waters north of Crozet experience an enormous bloom containing billions of individual phytoplankton and covering 120,000 square kilometers (the size of Ireland). In contrast, the area south of Crozet experiences only a small, short bloom later in the season.

'Our first question was, ‘where does the iron come from?’' said Charette. 'Airborne dust wasn’t the solution — there isn’t enough exposed soil on Crozet for winds to carry iron from the island to the deep water where the bloom occurs.

While other studies concluded that upwelling from the deep ocean was the main source of the iron, we wanted to test the hypothesis that the iron was coming from the island itself and the iron-rich sediments in the shallow water and the plateau area around it.'

Since the currents move from south to north over Crozet, the researchers reasoned that iron could be entrained in the water column as it flows over the plateau. First, they needed a way to understand how long it would take iron to travel from the island’s shore to the bloom site and if the rate of supply was enough to kick-start and sustain the bloom for several months.

Iron concentrations in the water wouldn’t tell them where it came from, so the team sampled waters around Crozet looking for naturally-occurring radium isotopes, which, like iron, originate in the sediments and can therefore be used to quantify the amount of iron that the islands and surrounding sediments can supply to the bloom area. The decaying isotopes provided a built-in clock for the investigators to determine how quickly the water moves over the plateau and into deeper water. The distribution of radium in the water column demonstrated that the source of the iron was the island and the sediments in the shallow water around it and the plateau.

A second question the team sought to answer was whether the differences in the blooms between the north and south sides of Crozet would result in greater amounts of carbon held in the deep ocean. Using sediment traps and sediment cores, the researchers uncovered the first evidence that carbon deposited at 3,000 meters and in the sediment was two to three times higher beneath the natural fertilized region than for the nearby iron-poor region. In addition, the sediment record shows that this has been so throughout the Holocene (about 10,000 years ago until present).

In recent years, schemes to fight global warming have included sequestering carbon in the deep ocean by fertilizing the ocean with iron to artificially induce plankton blooms.

As public interest in these ideas has increased, the authors point out that the amount of carbon sequestered in the deep ocean for a given input of iron falls far short of previous geoengineering estimates, 'with significant implications for proposals to mitigate the effects of climate change through purposeful addition of iron to the ocean,' wrote lead author Pollard.

Support for this project came from the Natural Environment Research Council and the National Science Foundation.

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution is a private, independent organization in Falmouth, Mass., dedicated to marine research, engineering, and higher education. Established in 1930 on a recommendation from the National Academy of Sciences, its primary mission is to understand the oceans and their interaction with the Earth as a whole, and to communicate a basic understanding of the oceans’ role in the changing global environment.

http://www.whoi.edu




by WHOI Media Relations

  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.powerboat-world.com/index.cfm?nid=54235

10:36 AM Mon 23 Feb 2009 GMT






Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.

Click for further information on
Environment and the ocean

Related News Stories:

27 Nov 2013  World Oceans Day appeals for funds
16 Nov 2013  Gigantic iceberg sails north from the Antarctic
09 Nov 2013  Sailing and swimming with manatees - Oceans Watch Essay
01 Nov 2013  OceansWatch: cruising sailors give something back in the South Pacific
23 Oct 2013  'The Ocean is Broken' - without fish, there can be no birds
13 Oct 2013  PlanetSolar reaches Paris after successful ocean study
02 Oct 2013  Monaco Yacht Show goes Green
07 Sep 2013  Great Pacific Garbage Patch - the real story
03 Sep 2013  World's largest solar yacht drops anchor after marine science quest
25 Aug 2013  Boat owners: cover vessels to deter seagulls
MORE STORIES ...

Power Boat News







Abbot Point onshore disposal by Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority,










Great Barrier Reef plan released for comment by Queensland Minister for Environment,










Brisbane Boat Show begins *Feature by Jeni Bone,








































Court judgement a stark reminder about towing safety
Australian Offshore Superboat 2014 - Superboats ready for Redcliffe
Southport Yacht Club’s annual Sail Past and Blessing of Fleet Ceremony
Gosport Grand Prix of the Sea finale to decide P1 champions
Camper & Nicholsons Yachts presents the Sagitta 42
GT15 and GT30 European Championships - Jelf takes to the podium twice
Marine Rescue crew saves cruiser in trouble in rough conditions
XCAT Series gets set to conquer another continent in 2015
Dangerous conditions for boaters on most of NSW coast
2014 Mandurah Boat Show - Third largest boat show in Australia
2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo - Eye on the big picture
Mediterranean Grand Prix - Powerboat racing heavyweights head to Ibiza
Mediterranean Grand Prix - World Aquabike stars all set
Antarctic sea-level rising faster than global rate
Powerboat champions gear up for Honda RYA Youth RIB National final
Andrew Scott joins Superior as General Manager *Feature
2014 Gold Coast International Marine Expo - Fastest Jet Ski ever built
Best Birthday Party ever at Southport Yacht Club! *Feature
‘Hall of Fame’ status for Empire Marina *Feature
Girl power all set for Nottingham powerboat racing action
Cowes to Torquay Race 2014 - Intense activity in preparation   
Fort Lauderdale International Boat Show - 13 things to See and do   
Australian Offshore Superboat Champ - 15 Superboats in Coffs Harbour   
European première for Belize 54 Daybridge at Cannes Yachting Festival   
‘Fish Friendly’ accreditation for Sanctuary Cove Marina   
Plethora of Powerboat racing action this weekend   
Vicsail Boat show Open Day at Rushcutters Bay   
Marine15 - prospectus available online now + VIDEO *Feature   
Southport Yacht Club achieves Clean Marina certification + VIDEO *Feature   
Port Kembla Volunteers bring in 75 metre monster from 5nm offshore   
Gold Coast Int'l Marine Expo - Make every moment one to remember   
Dangerous conditions for boaters from Queensland border to Sydney   
4x4 Outdoors Show and Fishing and Boating Expo - Busy opening day   
Summerland 40 LR named Boat of the Year   
More new boats brand Brisbane Boat Show as a spectacular showcase   
Xiamen Int'l Boat Show 2014 moving to a new home   
Yamaha inspires students to succeed   
NSW EPA supports Marina Industry Environmental Accreditation   
Powerful Yanmar 12AY Diesel Series revealed   
Buy a slice of Solar Sailor history *Feature   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png   http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL NEW PBW
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT