> Powerboat-World.com
 
 
News Home Video Gallery Newsletters FishingBoating Features Photo Gallery Sail-World Australia Australian Cruising
MarineBusiness-World
Sail-World.com : CO2 'is messing with coral skeletons'
CO2 'is messing with coral skeletons'

'Skeleton of an early post-settlement coral (Acropora millepora)'    ARC Centre of Excellence Coral Reef Studies ©    Click Here to view large photo

An international scientific team has carried out the world’s first analysis of the impact of ocean acidification on every gene in the coral genome, throwing new light on the likely fate of corals under climate change.

This prodigious research undertaking, involving more than 250 million 'reads' of genetic material and their detailed interpretation, was carried out by researchers from Australia, France, Netherlands and South Korea using powerful new genetic analysis tools.

In recent years declines in coral calcification have been reported around the world, matching the steady rise in carbon emissions to the atmosphere from human activity.

'Every time we release CO2, it turns the oceans imperceptibly more acidic – and previous research has shown this to have a harmful effect on corals, plankton and other marine organisms which form their skeletons from calcium and carbonate,' explains Professor David Miller of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies (CoECRS) at James Cook University in Australia.

'This has big implications for the entire food web in the oceans and life on Earth generally.'

'We knew a more acidic ocean was bad for corals – but we didn’t know exactly how it affected them. Our aim was to go back to basics and explore the effect on every gene in the genome of a young coral, and the job it does. This is an essential first step in gaining an accurate grasp of the impact of increased atmospheric CO2 on the world’s coral reefs and ocean life forms.'

Project scientists Dr Aurelie Moya of CoECRS and France’s Oceanographic Laboratory and Lotte Huisman of CoECRS and Amsterdam University led the experimental work, which involved raising coral larvae to the point where they settle on the reef, placing them in tanks and then exposing them to air bubbles with levels of CO2 of 750-1000 parts per million. This is projected to be the world’s atmospheric CO2 content by the end of this century, if humanity fails to cut its carbon emissions.

But the really big part of the experiment came when the team analysed the changes in signaling by every single one of the coral’s 20,000-odd genes. 'This is the first time anyone has looked at the expression of every gene in the coral genome simultaneously. It would have been impossible only a couple of years ago, but there have been huge technological advances,' Professor Miller explains. 'We were also very fortunate to be able to involve Dr Sylvain Foret, a brilliant young bioinformatician, in the data analysis.'

The answers the scientists obtained were both surprising and disturbing.

'Much to our surprise we found the rising acidity had little effect on the production of ion transport proteins that are responsible for circulating and depositing the calcium carbonate within the coral cells to form its skeleton. These seemed largely unaffected under high CO2.

'But equally surprising were the massive changes we observed in the expression of coral genes involved in the creating the framework required for skeleton formation: some were increased and some decreased.

'Overall it means that a more acidic ocean messes with the skeleton formation process in young corals in disturbing, but highly complex, ways.'

The team carried out their research using juvenile Acropora millepora (staghorn) corals at the stage where they have just settled on a reef, as the ability to form a strong, healthy skeleton is critical in the early stages of a coral’s life.

'There have been a lot of conflicting reports in the scientific literature about positive and negative effects of ocean acidification on corals – and our research shows why. The production of the coral skeleton is a highly complex process, and it is important to address this problem one step at a time and to ask simple questions,' Prof. Miller says

'In terms of the sheer volume of data, these are massive experiments that take a great deal of time to analyse.

'But if they give us a clearer understanding of the impact of a more acidic ocean on corals, that will also give us a far better understanding of how best to protect our coral reefs in a world where enormous changes are taking place at great speed,' he says.

The researchers are planning similar whole-of-genome analysis of the effects on corals of the higher ocean temperatures expected under global warming by the end of the century.

Their article Whole Transcriptome Analysis of the Coral Acropora millepora Reveals Complex Responses to CO2-driven Acidification during the Initiation of Calcification by A. Moya, L. Huisman, E.E. Ball, D.C. Hayward, L.C. Grasso, C.M. Chua, H.N.Woo, J.-P. Gattuso, S. Foret and D.J. Miller is published in the latest online edition of the journal Molecular Ecology.

ARC Centre of Excellence Coral Reef Studies http://www.coralcoe.org.au


by ARC Centre of Excellence Coral Reef Studies

  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.powerboat-world.com/index.cfm?nid=96357

2:50 AM Sun 22 Apr 2012GMT


Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.







Power Boat News









Yamaha inspires students to succeed by Yamaha Motor Australia,








Swan celebrates sales success *Feature by Jeni Bone,




Polar research: Six priorities for Antarctic science by Mahlon C. Kennicutt II and colleagues,


Stealth i14 out of China by Neil Patchett,












































NSW Environment Minister awards 'Fish Friendly' Marina Accreditations
Refurbished Protector project 'better than buying new'
Gold Coast International Marine Expo - High-Diver Steve Black is back
4x4 Outdoors Show, Fishing and Boating Expo - Campfire cooking corner
See the heat with FLIR ONE *Feature
John Temple to retire, Will Sangster appointed General Manager
Multihull Central launches Aquila range at SIBS *Feature
If all else fails read the instructions!!
If all else fails read the instructions!!
Sun shines on recreational boating at Sydney International Boat Show
Phuket Yacht Show: new kid on the block taking on PIMEX? *Feature
2014 Offshore Superboat Championships - The boats are back!
Sydney International Boat Show - Days 3 & 4 *Feature
Kirby Marine launch 13metre Naiad Tender
Shellfish reefs in Port Phillip Bay to be rejuvenated
2014 Brisbane Boat Show - What's your trailer boat worth?
Custom exhaust system solves buoyancy problem
Sydney International Boat Show - Day 2 *Feature
Marine Rescue volunteers celebrate new unit and $120,000 vessel
Sydney International Boat Show - images from Day 1 *Feature
Pantaenius Insurance - being seen in yellow, green and orange *Feature   
Sydney International Boat Show begins!   
Sydney International Boat Show - Changed conditions on Sydney Harbour   
Fraser Island annual fishing closure starts August 1   
Mildura boaters reminded Murray River will be low until mid August   
Gold Coast Broadwater no closer to welcoming supermaxis *Feature   
Sydney International Boat Show - all systems go!   
UK superyacht industry on the rise   
EOMAP modelling shows what's under our water   
Great Barrier Reef in a bad state, and getting worse   
Gold Coast International Marine Expo - Organisers add extra sites   
Series Point’s Championship - Formula Two team secures a second place   
Marine Rescue volunteers called to rescue second vessel out of fuel   
Predictwind helps you pick the best time to depart   
Marine Rescue volunteers rescue seven in marathon operation   
Watch this whale lift a Kayak clear out of the water   
Clipper Motor Yachts expands with Boat Equity   
Check out the Fountaine Pajot Saba 50 at Autumn boat shows   
Brisbane's biggest outdoors expo to celebrate ten years   
Vietnam Marina Development: ONE°15 Vung Ro Bay Marina Resort   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
   Archive News







Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png   http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL VIR PBW
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT